S N A P S H O T !
Killing centers did 96% of the actually killing in the Holocaust. The centers were dreaded by all Jews, and are now a piece of history that has been studied a great amount.

K I L L I N G C E N T E R S
After being taken away from their homes, the Jewish refugees were taken to Killing Centers located in Camps. These camps were known throughout the land, and dreaded by all Jews. Killing Centers contained many ways to kill and or torture the Jewish. People were taken from all over, if a person didn't have the perfect German "look", blond hair and blue eyes, they were captured and taken by trains to camps, known as death camps, extermination camps, and concentration camps. The conditions at these camps were as bad as it gets. There were thousands of people completely crammed together. Disease passed around the camp and eliminated much work for the Nazi soldiers under Adolf Hitlers control. The Nazi's had many ways of killing and exterminated these innocent people. Gas chambers were used a lot, by cramming hundreds at a time into what they thought was a shower but instead in a short time killing them all. These centers were the center of death and all other destruction of this time.

C E N T E R S
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Chelmno- The first opened killing center of the Holocaust. Located in what is now central Poland was these destructive death center. Chelmno was located 30 miles northwest of the Ner River, an area belonging to the German government, the camp was in/on a forest area and was somewhat hidden to other country's eyes. Killing operations began on December 8, 1941. Operated fully by police and Nazi soldiers Chelmno became one of the bloodiest places in the world. In 1942 Chelmno began getting deportations from Lodz Ghetto.
Belzec- Located in southeastern Poland between the cities of Zamosc and Lvov, this center opened in the late winter of 1942. The center was based off of the Belzec labor camp and began getting deportations from this camp. The center, in the Lubin District began construction in 1941. The newly opened killing center had a central railroad line making getting deportations easier and more efficient. The camp began closing in 1943 after deporting about 434,500 Jews from ghettos to the Sobibor killing center. They went there to be easily gassed and exterminated. After the camp was officially dismantled and the evidence (bodies) were completely gone the Germans plowed over the site.
Sobibor- Consisting of a small staff of all German and Nazi soldiers the camp was located about three miles from the Bug River. This center was located along the same railroad line as the Belzec center making transportation of deportations a lot easier. The center was opened in the spring of 1942. The center covered a rectangular area of 1,312 by 1,969 feet. The center was surrounded by barbed-wire fences and trees that camouflaged the site. The site was dismantled the summer of 1943 it became a center for single women and deported children, later it became an ammunition supply depot. The center still had suspicious behavior due to random deaths around the area, and until the killing officially ended in 1944 the camp was still working at a slower pace.
Treblinka- Chosen because of the sparsely populated surrounding area the center was built. Located on the same rail line as Sobibor and Belzec the site was used for much of the killing actions in the Holocaust. Opened in November 1941 the site opened as a killing center and labor camp. The camp hosted both Polish and Jewish inmates. The site had separate compounds for the labor camp and killing center. Majority of the Labor workers worked in nearby gravel pits to bury dead bodies. In 1942 a separate site was opened after Operation Reinhard authorities completed construction. The new site commenced operations with with the two other Operation Reinhard camps, Chelmno and Sobibor. The Germans killed between 870,000 and 925,000 Jews at this one killing center alone after closing their doors in early 1944.

T I M E L I N E
1933- Adolf Hitler is appointed Chancellor of Germany.
1941- first Killing Center opens, Chelmno, along with Treblinka.
1942- Belzec and Sobibor open for business.
1943- Belzec and Sobibor close.
1944- All killing centers close.

F I R S T H A N D A C C O U N T S
Jeannine Burk- Hidden in a woman's house from ages three to five, her childhood years, spent away from her family and friends. She escaped from ever having to go to a killing center. Her family was taken away to the camps and there they were killed. She lived her whole life with people she had never met before and then had to learn and adapt to moving families and trying to help spare her own life.
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Anne Frank- Hidden with a German family with few family members she was one of very few to survive living through the concentration camp. She was there first hand watching her parents and other family members being taken away to the killing centers and never seeing them again. Anne Frank is famous all around the world, as someone who has lived through one of the worst events of all time.

C O N N E C T I O N S
--Discrimination.
Both the Jewish and the Immigrants that we have talked about have been discriminating against. They have been social outcasts and have been treated as less than human their entire lives.
--Civil Wars.
People in all areas of discrimination and religious differently want to fight for what they want and what they believe in.
--Wounded Knee.
Both were very deadly.
--K.K.K.
Same as the Germans, killers/perpetrators.
--Nazi's
Perpetrators, owned and controlled the killing centers.

Q U E S T I O N S
1. How many people died total because of killing centers alone?
2. When did the killing centers officially open?
3. Could people escape or leave any of the centers?
4. When did the killing centers officially close?
5. What was done with some bodies that were buried?
Were they dug up as evidence?


W O R K S C I T E D
Menszer, John. Holocaust Survivors . 1999. Louisiana Endowment for the Humanities. 15 Apr. 2009
<http://www.holocaustsurvivors.org/>.
United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. 15 Apr. 2009 <http://www.ushmm.org>.